THE COMPLEAT EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE: CHRONOLOGY REFERENCE KEY, from a personal viewpoint
James E. Ayers, The Photographs of Eadweard Muybridge
Pamphlet to accompany an exhibition at the John Judkin Memorial, Bath, England.
Suggests Muybridge was taught photography by Carleton E. Watkins - now considered unlikely.
Collection formed by the late John Barnes, and his brother William, also known as the Archives of the Barnes Museum of Cinematography.
Marta Braun, Picturing Time. The Work of Etienne-Jules Marey (1830-1904)
(University of Chicago Press, 1992)
I first became aware of Marta Braun's research work on the Animal Locomotion plates with the publication of her article 'Muybridge's Scientific Fictions' in the journal Studies in Visual Communication 10.3 (Summer 1984). It was perhaps the catalyst that finally broke down my resistance to Muybridge. My main concern at the time was with cinematographic technology, and during the 70s and early 80s I had mostly limited my research - well, playing around with old projectors - to post-1890 film technology. It wasn't that I didn't recognise the importance of screened images before that date; in fact it was exactly the opposite. I knew what a huge world the magic lantern was, and was wary of being sucked in. But after joining the Magic Lantern Society in 1983, sucked in I was. With Picturing Time, Marta's views on Animal Locomotion complemented her work on the main subject of the book, Etienne Jules Marey. The Chapter on Muybridge is an important account of the image manipulations, and the 'narrative fictions' that he created.
Edward Ball, The Inventor and the Tycoon, A Gilded Age Murder and the Birth of Moving Pictures (Random House, 2012).
Page numbers that I give in the chronology on this website might not be accurate, as they were taken from a proof copy of this book.
Brian Clegg, The Man Who Stopped Time. The Illuminating Story of Eadweard Muybridge - Pioneer Photographer, Father of the Motion Picture, Murderer
(Joseph Henry Press, 2007)
Brian Coe, The History of Movie Photography
(Eastview Editions, 1981)
Still my bible when writing about motion picture technology, as Brian is more likely than anyone else to have got it right. Succinct, unambiguous, well-illustrated technical explanations for the non-technical reader. The Muybridge section is very well done.
Brian Coe, Muybridge & the Chronophotographers
(Museum of the Moving Image, 1992)
At the Museum of the Moving Image (London), from 1989, I worked on various Muybridge projects - from a reconstruction of a Muybridge lecture, featuring bewhiskered actor Ellis Pike as a grumpy Eadweard, to the stage re-enactment of his shooting of Larkyns (both more in fun than scholarship). The latter was at a press show for the opening of the 1992 exhibition Catching the Action. Muybridge and the Chronophotographers. This was based on a travelling exhibit (photo / text boards) which had formed the Muybridge display at Kingston Museum for some years. It was expanded by Brian Coe and myself - at extremely short notice, was it six weeks? - when the finance for a proposed exhibition on Hammer horror films collapsed. We were told: 'and there will be a book'. One Thursday afternoon Brian and I had a meeting and pooled our photos, patent diagrams, and other visual material - and made a hurried selection. That evening Brian started writing/compiling the text of the book, and (after hosting two full days of a Doctor Who weekend) sent it to the typesetter/designer on the Tuesday. Both book and exhibition suffered from lack of thinking time - we never did grasp the key task of explaining chronophotography as a self-contained subject separate from the beginnings of cinematography. Despite that, the little book did perhaps introduce both of those subjects to a new readership.
Gordon, Sarah. 'Prestige, Professionalism, and the Paradox of Eadweard Muybridge's Animal Locomotion Nudes', The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 130.1 (2006)
Robert Bartlett Haas, Muybridge. Man in motion
(Universty of California Press, 1976)
Twenty years or so in the making, it was worth waiting for. A very competent and profusely illustrated biography, and if one Muybridge book has to be chosen, still perhaps the first choice.
Harlan Hamilton '''Les allures du Cheval'' Eadweard Muybridge's Contribution to the Motion Picture', Film Comment, Fall 1969.
Important article that demolishes Terry Ramsaye's acidic account of Muybridge and his work. Includes a bibliography with useful references to periodicals.
David Harris, with Eric Sandweiss, Eadweard Muybridge and the Photographic Panorama of San Francisco 1850-1880
(Canadian Centre for Architecture, 1993)
Catalogue of an exhibition held at the Canadian Centre for Architecture, Montreal, Quebec. A delight to see these superb reproductions of San Francisco panoramas, including Muybridge's - which are a nightmare for the cataloguer. Authoritative text.
Hermann Hecht, (ed. Ann Hecht), Pre-Cinema History. An Encyclopaedia and Annotated Bibliography of the Moving Image Before 1896 [Numbers given are entry numbers]
(Bowker Saur/British Film Institute 1993)
Indispensible for anyone researching image projection history - and a useful guide to many Muybridge references in the literature.
Gordon Hendricks, Eadweard Muybridge, the Father of the Motion Picture
Handsome, well-researched and well written account of the life and work. Complements the Haas biography, and also '20 years in the making'. Profusely illustrated.
Gordon Hendricks, The Edison Motion Picture Myth
(University of California Press, 1961)
Gordon Hendricks, The Kinetoscope
(The author, 1966)
Crammed with references and footnotes, Hendricks' early books are difficult to read but very useful. They include detailed information on the Muybridge / Edison relationship.
Stephen Herbert (ed.), Eadweard Muybridge. The Kingston Museum Bequest
(The Projection Box and Kingston Museum, 2004)
Published during 2004 and the commemoration of the centenary of Muybridge's death. Includes listing of lantern slides and other images on glass, Zoopraxiscope and discs. Introduction by Anne McCormack, Marta Braun on the human figures in the Animal Locomotion plates, Paul Hill on the 1878 San Francisco panorama, and my own Chapter on the lectures and Zoopraxiscope, which includes much new information on Muybridge's talks in Britain. Illustrations of all the discs, many in colour.
Paul Hill, Eadweard Muybridge 50
(Phaidon Press, 2001)
A small book comprising an excellent selection and reproduction of images - many taken from lantern slides in the Kingston Museum Collection - and a useful and very readable biography accompaniment by a former Curator of the Museum. Paul's enthusiasm for Muybridge during my many visits at the time of his curatorship was infectious.
Marion Hinton (ed.), Eadweard Muybridge of Kingston upon Thames, booklet issued to accompany Kingston Museum long-term exhibition, 1984
Well researched, illustrated, and presented booklet.
Mary V. Jessup Hood and Robert Bartlett Haas, 'Eadweard Muybridge's Yosemite Valley Photographs, 1867-1872', The California Historical Society Quarterly, March 1963.
Jervis McEntee papers, 1850-1905, in the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.
Kevin MacDonnell, Eadweard Muybridge. The man who invented the moving picture
(Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1972)
An English photography-enthusiast's attempt to create the first book on Muybridge. Easy to be critical - as Anita Ventura Mozley was when it was published - but it was difficult for an amateur to produce a book of this kind back then, without spending half a lifetime at it. Lots of errors, photos reversed (easily done when taking images from bound lantern slides - especially in early 70s when many of the photographs were not well known), and other problems - but wide distribution, in several languages, did help to make Muybridge's story and range of images more widely known. Transcriptions of original documents still useful.
Laurent Mannoni (trans. and ed. Richard Crangle), The Great Art of Light and Shadow. Archaeology of the Cinema
(University of Exeter Press, 2000)
Originally published in French in 1995. Introduction by Tom Gunning. Preface by David Robinson. The magic lantern, moving image toys, and the origins of cinematography. Fine research, excellent writing.
Laurent Mannoni, Etienne-Jules Marey. la mémoire de l'oeil
(Mazzotta / Cinematheque Francaise, 1999)
Standard reference work on Marey and his associates, copiled with Laurent Mannoni's usual meticulous precision and insight, beautifully illustrated and reproduced. Some references to Muybridge that are not easily found elsewhere.
Anita Ventura Mozley, Eadweard Muybridge, The Stanford Years 1872-1882
(Stanford University, revised edition 1973).
An essential reference for the serious researcher.
Charles Musser, The Emergence of Cinema: The American Screen to 1907
(University of California Press, 1990).
History of the American Cinema series, Volume 1.
Muybridge 'slots in' to the early history of motion picture presentation in the United States. Musser writes: 'Within the framework of refined Victorian culture, he challenged the beliefs of conservative religious groups and estabished new parameters for discourse; his presentations were subversive not only of traditional assumptions about animal locomotion but of conventional religous and moral wisdom.'
John William Ott The Gilded Rush: Art Patronage, Industrial Capital, and Social Authority in Victorian California (PhD. dissertation, UCLA)
Centre Pompidou (publisher), Jean Clair and Michel Frizot (eds.), E. J. Marey. 1830/1904. La photographie du movement
Phillip Prodger, Time Stands Still. Muybridge and the Instantaneous Photography Movement
(Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts at Stanford University in association with Oxford University Press, 2003)
Deac Rossell, 'A Chronology of Cinema 1889-1906.' Film History journal Vol.7 No.2 (Special issue)
The most important chronology of the early years of cinema, much more accurate than online chronologies. The few Muybridge entries (his final years) are seen in context with the development of the moving image by others.
Scrapbook, or Press Cuttings Book, compiled by Muybridge and now in Kinston Local History Room
Arthur P. Shimamura, 'Muybridge in motion: Travels in art, psychology, and neurology', History of Photography, 26.
Rebecca Solnit, Motion Studies (London: Bloomsbury, 2003).
The cover bears the title:
Motion Studies. Time, Space and Eadweard Muybridge.
Motion Studies. Eadweard Muybridge and the Technological Wild West.
The American edition is entitled
River of Shadows. Eadweard Muybridge and the Technological Wild West. (USA: Viking, 2003)
Two different covers for the same book (a la Harry Potter) is not unknown. Three different titles for the same work seems less than helpful. An odd publishing decision.
Two good biographies were published in the 1970s. So what does this new book add to our knowledge of the man and his work? Well not too much, perhaps, in terms of hard new information. Instead, Rebecca Solnit puts Muybridge into the context of his time. In particular, she muses extensively on the speeding-up of the late Victorian world, and there is much about railroads and the 'annihilation of time and space'. There are bold claims for Muybridge's legacy: 'From Muybridge's invention came Hollywood' insists the jacket blurb: '...and from his patron Stanford's sponsorship of technological research came Silicon Valley'. In a sense, though no doubt both would have happened without Muybridge. More...
Robert Taft, 'An Introduction. Eadweard Muybridge and his work', in The Human Figure in Motion (Dover 1955) [This is not the Muybridge book of 1901, but a new selection of plates from Animal Locomotion.]