LECTURES


Muybridge's lantern slides of Panama, Alaska, and the Yosemite Valley were projected by magic lantern (stereopticon) for the Photographic Art Society in San Francisco, on 7th January 1878. Muybridge was not present that evening, but perhaps attended the second presentation on 18th May. During the summer, he was presenting slides of his motion studies together with his scenic views.

By the early months of 1880, Muybridge was giving private showings of his Zoopraxiscope Zoopraxiscope (originally 'Zoogyroscope') silhouette motion sequences to visitors at Leland Stanford's home, and on 4th May his first public demonstrations of the device.

Scenic views soon disappeared from the programme, and these early presentations gradually evolved into lectures on animal motion, and the history of its representation in all forms of art, down through the ages. Muybridge lectured in France and Britain in the early 1880s, then in the USA during the rest of the decade.

In 1889-90 he lectured again throughout Britain and in Ireland, and in the Spring and Summer of 1891 in Germany, Italy, and elsewhere in Europe. During the Spring and Summer of 1893 he gave presentations at the World's Fair in Chicago. His last known lecture was back in England in 1897, to the Artists' Society at St Ives, Cornwall.

Most of Muybridge's lecture materials - magic lantern slides and Zoopraxiscope discs - survive, in the Kingston Museum Collection in England. The text of his 1880s lecture also exists, reproduce in Gordon Hendricks' book Eadweard Muybridge, the Father of the Motion Picture.

Despite three biographies and many articles about Muybridge a large number of his lectures, in particular his presentations in Europe in 1891, are still unrecorded in this listing, as research on this aspect of Muybridge's career is sketchy. Also, there is no known report of any of his presentations in the Zoopraxographical Hall at the 1893 World's Fair, Chicago, and no known report of the presentation of any of the colour Zoopraxiscope discs. The most complete account of his lectures is the chapter Projecting the Living Image, in Eadweard Muybridge, the Kingston Museum Bequest.

References for the lectures listed below will be found in the detailed chronology on this website.

Key to references [in square brackets]

1876

January 7 Muybridge's slides of Panama, Alaska, and Yosemite projected for Photographic Art Society, San Francisco. Muybridge not present.

1878

May 18 gives 'second exhibition' of projected slides of his Central America photos, at Art Association Exhibition.

July 8 (9th and 10th?) lantern lectures (given on three evenings, from 8 July(?)) at San Francisco Art Association Rooms, Pine Street.

July 13 San Francisco Bulletin 'MUYBRIDGE'S LECTURE AND EXHIBITION. - This evening E.J. Muybridge will give his illustrated lecture on the motion of the trotting horse for the last time at the rooms of the Art Association on Pine Street near Kearney.'

July-September further slide presentations, which include studies of horse in motion.

1880

January 13 Professor Manly Miles lectures in New York using Palo Alto series photographs. (Muybridge is not mentioned in news report).

January 16 'new show - ballroom of Stanford's San Francisco house' with Zoogyroscope/Zoopraxiscope.

January 20 another showing of Zoogyroscope/Zoopraxiscope at Stanford Residence. [Mozley 4 n.21] (?) (Date may relate to report in the Call dated 20 January; item in Scrapbook 'The Stanford Entertainment.' '...last Friday evening.' which was the 16th.

March 21 'showed some of his Zoopraxiscopic discs to visitors to Palo Alto.'

May 4 first 'public' performance of Zoopraxiscope [Mosley 34 n.21] [Scrap] San Francisco Art Association (Review Alta California 5 May 1880) "Press preview".

May 5 repeat lecture at San Francisco Art Association.

May 19 New York Times (From the San Francisco Call, May 5.) 'The Zoogyroscope; interesting exhibition of photographs of animals in motion.' 'A private exhibition of the zoogyroscope was given by E.J. Muybridge, the photographer, at the gallery of the San Francisco Art Association, last evening. Mr. Muybridge has been engaged during the past two years in making photographic representations of animals in motion, under the patronage of Gov. Leland Stanford...'

September 18 Land and Water (London) 'an exhibition, illustrating by means of the zoogyroscope,...is now being given here.' ('here' being USA.)

1881

August travels from New York to Europe for lectures.

September 26 exhibits Zoopraxiscope at home of Etienne-Jules Marey, physiologist, in Paris. Photographer Nadar, physicists Helmholtz and Bjerknes, and Emile Duhousset, present.

November 3 first Meissonier show, 131 bld Malsherbes.

November 26 (2nd Meissonier) presentation of Zoopraxiscope, operated by Alfred Molteni (projection expert) at Paris home of Jean Louis Ernest Meissonier, French painter. 200 guests including famous artists.

December lecture, Cercle de l'Union Artistique, Paris.

1882

February leaves France for London.

March-June series of lectures in England.

March 6 rehearsal of Zoopraxiscope at Royal Institution. (Letter Muybridge to Shay, 7 March 1882). George Augustus Sala, writing in 1883 about Muybridge in Living London, says Royal Institution lecture was Monday 6 March 1882 - but Muybridge, writing on Tues 7 March 1882, says rehearsal was previous evening and lecture to be 'on Monday night' (i.e. 13th).

March 13 Zoopraxiscope used at Royal Institution lecture, afternoon, to Royalty etc. Extra lecture same evening. [Haas 133] [Hendricks 141] Muybridge's text in: Notices of the Proceedings of the Meetings of the Members of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, etc. [Hamilton bibliog]. Proceedings text states: EXTRA EVENING MEETING, Monday, March 13, 1882. H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, K.G. F.R.S. Vice-Patron and Honorary Member, in the Chair. Eadweard Muybridge, of San Francisco. The Attitudes of Animals in Motion, illustrated with the Zoopraxiscope. [Proceedings of the Royal Institution online, at the Internet Archive]

March 14 possible lecture Royal Academy (of Arts)?

March 16 Zoopraxiscope used at Royal Academy of Arts lecture. (Or 14th).

March 18 Zoopraxiscope at Savage Club.

April 4 Zoopraxiscope at Society of Arts. Text of lecture is later published.

April 5 Zoopraxiscope presentation at South Kensington Museum.

June 5 lecture to Liverpool Art Club.

June 8 lecture at home of John J Atkinson.

June 25 arrives New York. [Hendricks 149] OR July 4. [Haas 136] OR 26 June, from Liverpool England and Queenstown Ireland, on the Republic.

August 22 Newport, Rhode Island lecture. [Hendricks 149] Fairman Rogers, University of Pennsylvania trustee, attended the lecture. [Sarah Gordon]

October 19 Society of Arts, Massachusetts Institute of Technology lecture.

October 23 Union Hall, Boston, public lecture The Romance and Realities of Animal Locomotion. One of several, every evening (except Wednesday) for one week, with matinees Wed and Sat.

November 17 lecture, Turf Club New York City. Romance and Reality of Animal Motion.

November 28 National Academy of Design lecture.

December 22 National Academy of Design second lecture.

1883

January 9 Union League Club, New York lecture.

February 12 Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, lecture. /p>

February 13 Franklin Institute lecture.

February 15 Academy of Music lecture.

February 16 second lecture, Academy of Fine Arts.

Spring Muybridge lectures in New York: Photographic Section of the American Institute, Cooper Union and elsewhere.

September 26 lecture to the art class pupils 'and many prominent citizens' at the New Bedford High School, Massachusetts. (Check date, as report seems to be in Fairhaven Star, Sat 22 Sept).

November 9 lecture at Harvard College, Boston.

same year:

** George Augustus Sala, writes about Muybridge's 1882 Royal Institution lecture of March 1882 (says it was on Monday 6th - but in fact that was the rehearsal?), in: Living London: being 'Echoes' re-echoed. (A selected republication of the 'Echoes of the Week' and 'The Playhouses' which appeared in 1882 in the Illustrated London News.) Remington & Co.: London, 1883.

1884

February 8 lecture at Association Hall, Philadelphia.

August lecture, Scientific Society, University of Pennsylvania. 'same ... he gave us last year.' [Braun 411 n.15] (what was date of 1883 lecture?)
[http://www.franklin.library.upenn.edu]

also:
Lecture, Philadelphia Museum of Art (School) some time in 1884. [Annual report of the Philadelphia Museum of Art, no.9 1884 - aka 'The Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art Philadelphia' - President William Pepper] (Was this the 8 Feb lecture?)

1885

April 30 lectures again to Scientific Society, in the chapel of the University of Pennsylvania.

1887

December 27 lecture at Thomas S. Clarke's art studio in Oakland, Pittsburg.

1888

February 2 lecture in the art studio of William M. Chase, West Tenth Street, New York City.

February 16 lecture at 'the Academy' ?

February 25 lecture in Orange, New Jersey.

March 9 lecture Union League Club, New York.

March 12 lecture at Century Club, New York.

April 26 Muybridge lecture at Press Club, Boston.

May 4 Orange, New Jersey second lecture.

June 21 lecture, Hall of the Milwaukee College, 8pm.

Summer/Autumn Art Institute of Chicago; Boston; Philadelphia lectures (probably with Zoopraxiscope).

August 2 Manitoba Daily Free Press (Winnipeg) "...animal LOCOMOTION. all possible Human and Animal Modes of motion Caught by The Camera. visit to Winnipeg of Mr. Muybridge, Inventor of The System. ... "

1889

** Ramsaye writes that Muybridge gave lecture to Oxford Club, Brooklyn, in 1889. If so, must have been January as Muybridge in UK rest of that year. Also, Dancing Girl almost certainly not subject on pe-1892 discs. Ref: 'Ch.7: Black's Pre-Film Pictureplay. [Alexander Black, of the later Black's Picture Plays lantern shows]...was in the audience when Muybridge addressed the Oxford club of Brooklyn in 1889.....Muybridge presented on his "Zoopraxiscope" a picture of a dancing girl in a costume which interfered neither with her movements nor the vision of the audience. The stumbling of an usher or some similar mishap made a noise in the back of the house. Some one hissed for silence. Muybridge hastily assumed that the hiss was for his dancing girl picture. He stopped the show and harangued that staid Oxford club audience on the purity of art and the divinity of the human form.' A Million and One Nights. The History of the Motion Picture, Terry Ramsaye. (Talk to Oxford Club not found in newspaper searches.)

January 26 travels to Europe on Cunard Line's R.M.S Servia, which steamed from New York to Liverpool on 26 January 1889.

February 9 lecture at Tadema's art studio in London? Suggested by letters of Feb 7 and Feb 11. Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1836-1912)... arguably the most successful painter of the Victorian era. In 1883 the family moved to St John's Wood where they held the famous 'At Homes,' a feature of London Society.

March 12 and 13 lecture Royal Academy of Arts?

March (mid-late) London lecture/s, South Kensington Museum?

March 22 Royal Institution WEEKLY EVENING MEETING, Friday, March 22, 1889. Colonel J. A. Grant, C.B. C.S.I. F.R.S. Vice-President, in the Chair. Eadweard Muybridge, Esq. The Science of Animal Locomotion in its Relation to design in Art, (Illustrated by the Zoopraxiscope.)

May 2 lecture at Royal Institution, London, 'The Science of Animal Locomotion in its Relation to Design in Art'

May 8 lecture to Royal Society, Burlington House, London.

May 9 lecture at Royal Institution, London, 'The Science of Animal Locomotion in its Relation to Design in Art'

June 19 Ladies Night at Royal Society, London. Muybridge 'gave demonstrations'.

late August lecture Photographic Convention of Great Britain, St James's Hall, London. 'tremendous applause ... the most wonderful revelation of the age.'

September 12 and 17 lecture at conversatziones, Newcastle (Natural History Museum?), arranged by British Association

September second lecture, Art Gallery, Newcastle.

October 2 lecture as part of Conversatzione, The Library Association's Annual meeting, Stationers' Hall, London

October 28 lecture to the Literary and Philosophical Society 'The Science of Animal Locomotion in Relation to Design in Art', The Music Hall, Surrey Street, Sheffield.

November 7 lecture to Bristol Naturalists' Society, Victoria Rooms, Bristol, to audience of 'upwards of 400'.

November 9 lecture at the [University?] Museum, Oxford.

November 21 lecture 'Wellington School' (Wellington College, Crowthorne, Berkshire) to the boys of the Natural Science Society.

November 27 lecture Leeds, to Leeds Mechanics' Institution, and Literary Society.

December 2 lecture, Assembly Rooms, Bath.

December 12 lecture at the London Institution. (Not Royal Institution).

1890

January 8 lecture in small concert-room, St George's Hall, Liverpool.

January 22 lecture Manchester Athenaeum.

January 27 lecture at Grantham.

February 3 lecture at Lecture Hall, Tower Street, Ipswich, arranged by the Scientific Society.

February 11 lecture, The Science of Animal Locomotion in Relation to Art and Design, Hall of Young Men's Christian Association, arranged by Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Association. Belfast.

February 12 lecture Royal Dublin Society, lecture theatre, Leinster House, Kildare St, Dublin.

February 13 lecture Belfast.

February 14 lecture Royal Dublin Society, lecture theatre, Leinster House, Kildare St, Dublin.

February 17 lecture Dublin, for Photographic Society of Ireland, Antient Concert Rooms, Great Brunswick Street.

February 21 lecture, Concert Hall, Peter-street Manchester.

February 26 Lecture Queen's Rooms Glasgow 'under the auspices of the Philosophical Society of Glasgow'.

February 27 lecture Queen's Rooms, Glasgow, for the Glasgow Philosophical Society, acting as the Glasgow Science Lectures Association Trust. (Was this in fact the lecture held on 26th?).

March 6 lecture Glasgow

March 12 lecture Birmingham, The Motions of Animals, Birmingham Natural History and Microscopical Society, Town Hall.

March 13 lecture Mason College, Birmingham. 'Mr Maybridge [sic] said he would state quite frankly that his chief object in coming to England was not to lecture but to sell his book..'.

March 14 lecture Birmingham, The Motions of Animals, Birmingham Natural History and Microscopical Society, Town Hall. '... second in a course of two lectures'.

May 9 two lectures, 3pm and 8pm, Royal Concert Hall, Hastings. Under the auspices of the Hastings and St. Leonards Photographic Society. Hastings and St. Leonards News, 9 May 1890.

Summer returns to United States.

August 22 'in New York.'

late Summer/early Autumn back in England.

October 8 and 10 lectures Bristol

October 13 lecture Birmingham. The Science of Animal Locomotion in its Relation to Design in Art (pt 1), Midland Institute.

October 20 lecture Birmingham. The Science of Animal Locomotion in its Relation to Design in Art (pt 2), Midland Institute.

November 27 lecture Kinnaird Hall, Dundee, one of the Armitstead Lectures.

December 4 lecture Burnley MechanicsŐ Institution, Burnley.

December 9 lecture Gloucester Corn Exchange

December 12 lecture Town Hall Bootle

December 17 lecture at Manchester Town Hall.

** also in 1890 [? Or possibly November 1889, when he is known to have lectured elsewhere in Bristol]: lecture in Bristol. 'Mr. H. A. Hood Daniel, F.S.I., of Keynsham Manor, Somerset, the President of the Bristol and West of England Amateur Photographic Association... is always willing to lend his help and influence to further the science; only within the last few weeks, through his instrumentality Professor Muybridge was induced to deliver his lecture upon 'Animal Locomotion,' illustrated by the 'Zoopraxiscope,' at the Colston Hall, Bristol.' Text by Charles W Hastings, editor of 'The Photographic Societies' Reporter,' 'Amateur Photographer,' 'Photographic Quarterly,' etc. [http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/onlineex/earlyphotos/h/006zzz0pp1912feu00018000.html]

1891

January 24 lecture at the Hotel de la Societe de Geographie in Paris, on the "Science of Animal Locomotion in Relation to Design in Art."

** lectures in Germany.

March 9 lecture at Urania theatre Berlin, audience of 500. [Rossell, Chronology 122] [Hendricks says 'March 21st for several lectures'.]

** Technische Hochschule lecture?

** lectures elsewhere in Europe during Spring/Summer, before returning to USA in November. Descriptive Zoopraxography (published 1893) lists: The Society of Artists, Vienna; The Society of Artists, Munich; The Polytechnic High School, Vienna; The Polytechnic High School, Munich; The University of Turin. All must be 1891, but exact dates not known. The following press notices were reproduced in :
'A very large number could not obtain admission, so great was the desire to hear the lecture ... A wonderful surprise even to the careful observer of Nature.' - Die Press, Vienna.
'The lecture was given in the popular manner, with scientific accuracy and artistic taste ... The room was filled to the last corner; nearly all the Royal Family and the Ministers were present.' - Munchener Neueste Nachrichten, Munich.

November 25 returns to America on the Ohio, from Liverpool.

December 7 (?) arrives Philadelphia.

1892

March Muybridge in California.

March 20 New York Times 'Amateur Photography' (etc). 'There was an enjoyable evening spent by members of the Salmagundi Club last Friday at their rooms on Twenty-second Street .....A feature of the exhibition was the slides contributed by Prof. Muybridge of animals and figures in motion...'

April 18 Academy of Sciences (San Francisco) lecture.

April 22 lecture, Art Association, San Francisco.

Summer abandons plans for a lecture tour of the East (India and Australia - also Japan?). 'In the Summer of 1892 while the author was in California, preparing for a Lecturing tour through Australia and India, he received an invitation from the Fine Arts Commission of the World's Columbian Exposition to give a series of lectures on Zoopraxography...' [Descriptive Zoopraxography (1893).]

1893

April 11 Chicago lecture, Athenaeum Hall.

April 13 Chicago lecture, Athenaeum Hall.

May 11 The Daily Citizen, Iowa City, Iowa. 'THE SIDESHOWS. Extra Fees Are Charged for These World's Fair Attractions. Long List of Novel Means of Entertainment Together with Their Prices of Admission. COST ABOUT $15 TO SEE ALL....Lectures on Animal Locomotion. Jackson [...]on Animal Locomotion, illustrating science of Animal Locomotion and zoopraxiscopic fans. No admission charge...'

June 16 Chicago Daily Tribune 'NOTHING LIKE IT EVER SEEN. All the Denizens of the Midway Plaisance Will Parade in the Grounds.' 'The Midway Plaisance will make its first grand entry into Jackson Park Saturday afternoon at 2 o'clock.' ... 'The Ferris Wheel employees are now uniformed and will turn out in a body; the Moorish palace will contribute its native band, and the Persian Pavilion its quota of attaches. Eiffel Tower and Prof. Muybridge's Zoopraxographical Hall will be seen also.'

August 3 Chicago Daily Tribune 'TALK TO EMPTY SEATS. TECHNICAL LEARNING IN MANY CONGRESSES FAILS TO ATTRACT - In the evening the Congress on Painting and Sculpture listened to an address on "Copperplate Engraving" by Frederick Keppel of New York, illustrated by the stereopticon, and a paper on "The Science of Animal Locomotion in Its Relation to Design in Art," by Edward Muybridge. The attendance was not large.'

1894

June 1 Muybridge in New York. Date: 1 June 1894, in copy of Descriptive Zoopraxography dedicated to Wilberforce Eames. (Eames (1855-1937) was a U.S. bibliographer and librarian.)

Summer returns to England.

1895

October 14 lecture 'Animals in Motion' at a school in the South of England. Were colour discs shown? [Mention in Journal of Education Nov 1895, p.658 and/or 685. No access at present]

October 16 'lecture and demonstration', Ipswich, 'Motion of the Horse and other Animals in Nature and in Art'.

October 18 Sheffield Daily Telegraph advertisement for lecture that evening.

1896

February Muybridge established in Boston.

June (or February?) (until May 1897) Final visit to United States to settle business relating to University of Pennsylvania work.

1897

May returns to UK from US ?

Summer/Autumn last known lecture, to Artists' Society, St Ives, Cornwall.

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